Encyclopedia, Vol. 4, Pages 888-899: A Systematic Review of Effects on ACL Injury of Soccer Shoe Outsoles, Soccer Playing Field Surfaces, and Outsole–Surface Interface

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Encyclopedia, Vol. 4, Pages 888-899: A Systematic Review of Effects on ACL Injury of Soccer Shoe Outsoles, Soccer Playing Field Surfaces, and Outsole–Surface Interface

Encyclopedia doi: 10.3390/encyclopedia4020057

Authors: Antonio Cicchella Jierui He

Soccer is a sport with a high incidence of injuries. The most common injury occurs when the anterior cruciate ligament of the knee has undergone a sprain, strain, or partial or total rupture. Besides fitness factors (e.g., proprioception, balance and strength capabilities), a principal cause of ACL injuries is sport shoes and playing surfaces. Especially with the emergence of artificial surfaces (rubbers, turfs, concrete, asphalt, red turf), the ACL injuries dramatically increase. The cost of ACL injuries is high both in terms of career termination and in social and economic costs. Thus, it is necessary to understand the impact of sport shoes and playing surfaces on the ACL and how it can be mitigated. The present literature review followed the PRISMA methodology to identify the major biomechanical factors influencing the behavior of surfaces and shoes in relation to the ACL damage. Fifty-eight papers were identified. After reviewing the mechanism of injuries, we identified several distinct factors: type of outsole and mechanical arrangement of the outsoles; shear forces; characteristics of artificial turf surfaces; effect of weather on artificial surface aging and change in mechanical characteristics; outsole/ground interface; and the frictional, tractional and rotational forces in the pathogenesis of ACL injuries in soccer.

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