IJMS, Vol. 25, Pages 6619: Diagnostic and Prognostic Markers for Pancreatitis and Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma

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IJMS, Vol. 25, Pages 6619: Diagnostic and Prognostic Markers for Pancreatitis and Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma

International Journal of Molecular Sciences doi: 10.3390/ijms25126619

Authors: Havish S. Kantheti Michael A. Hale Shreoshi Pal Choudhuri Huocong Huang Xu-dong Wang Yalda Zolghadri Giulio Innamorati Sai Prasada Rao Manikonda Naviya Reddy Sarthak Reddy Rahul K. Kollipara Valbona Lumani Luc Girard Yakov Bezrukov Pavel Demenkov Raymond J. MacDonald Rolf A. Brekken Yonghao Yu Thomas M. Wilkie

Diagnostic markers are desperately needed for the early detection of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA). We describe sets of markers expressed in temporal order in mouse models during pancreatitis, PDA initiation and progression. Cell type specificity and the differential expression of PDA markers were identified by screening single cell (sc) RNAseq from tumor samples of a mouse model for PDA (KIC) at early and late stages of PDA progression compared to that of a normal pancreas. Candidate genes were identified from three sources: (1) an unsupervised screening of the genes preferentially expressed in mouse PDA tumors; (2) signaling pathways that drive PDA, including the Ras pathway, calcium signaling, and known cancer genes, or genes encoding proteins that were identified by differential mass spectrometry (MS) of mouse tumors and conditioned media from human cancer cell lines; and (3) genes whose expression is associated with poor or better prognoses (PAAD, oncolnc.org). The developmental progression of PDA was detected in the temporal order of gene expression in the cancer cells of the KIC mice. The earliest diagnostic markers were expressed in epithelial cancer cells in early-stage, but not late-stage, PDA tumors. Other early markers were expressed in the epithelium of both early- and late-state PDA tumors. Markers that were expressed somewhat later were first elevated in the epithelial cancer cells of the late-stage tumors, then in both epithelial and mesenchymal cells, or only in mesenchymal cells. Stromal markers were differentially expressed in early- and/or late-stage PDA neoplasia in fibroblast and hematopoietic cells (lymphocytes and/or macrophages) or broadly expressed in cancer and many stromal cell types. Pancreatitis is a risk factor for PDA in humans. Mouse models of pancreatitis, including caerulein treatment and the acinar-specific homozygous deletion of differentiation transcription factors (dTFs), were screened for the early expression of all PDA markers identified in the KIC neoplasia. Prognostic markers associated with a more rapid decline were identified and showed differential and cell-type-specific expression in PDA, predominately in late-stage epithelial and/or mesenchymal cancer cells. Select markers were validated by immunohistochemistry in mouse and human samples of a normal pancreas and those with early- and late-stage PDA. In total, we present 2165 individual diagnostic and prognostic markers for disease progression to be tested in humans from pancreatitis to late-stage PDA.

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