JoF, Vol. 9, Pages 1164: Kazachstania pintolopesii in Blood and Intestinal Wall of Macrophage-Depleted Mice with Cecal Ligation and Puncture, the Control of Fungi by Macrophages during Sepsis
Journal of Fungi doi: 10.3390/jof9121164
Authors: Pratsanee Hiengrach Ariya Chindamporn Asada Leelahavanichkul
Although macrophage depletion is a possible emerging therapeutic strategy for osteoporosis and melanoma, the lack of macrophage functions can lead to inappropriate microbial control, especially the regulation of intestinal microbiota. Cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) sepsis was performed in regular mice and in mice with clodronate-induced macrophage depletion. Macrophage depletion significantly increased the mortality and severity of sepsis-CLP mice, partly through the increased fecal Ascomycota, especially Kazachstania pintolopesii, with polymicrobialbacteremia (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis, and Acinetobacter radioresistens). Indeed, macrophage depletion with sepsis facilitated gut dysbiosis that directly affected gut permeability as yeast cells were located and hidden in the colon crypts. To determine the interactions of fungal molecules on bacterial abundance, the heat-kill lysate of fungi (K. pintolopesii and C. albicans) and purified (1&rarr;3)-&beta;-d-glucan (BG; a major component of the fungal cell wall) were incubated with bacteria that were isolated from the blood of macrophage-depleted mice. There was enhanced cytokine production of enterocytes (Caco-2) after the incubation of the lysate of K. pintolopesii (isolated from sepsis mice), the lysate of C. albicans (extracted from sepsis patients), and BG, together with bacterial lysate. These data support a possible influence of fungi in worsening sepsis severity. In conclusion, macrophage depletion enhanced K. pintolopesii in feces, causing the overgrowth of fecal pathogenic bacteria and inducing a gut permeability defect that additively worsened sepsis severity. Hence, the fecal fungus could be spontaneously elevated and altered in response to macrophage-depleted therapy, which might be associated with sepsis severity.