Microorganisms, Vol. 12, Pages 1212: Effect of Bacterial Extracellular Polymeric Substances from Enterobacter spp. on Rice Growth under Abiotic Stress and Transcriptomic Analysis

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Microorganisms, Vol. 12, Pages 1212: Effect of Bacterial Extracellular Polymeric Substances from Enterobacter spp. on Rice Growth under Abiotic Stress and Transcriptomic Analysis

Microorganisms doi: 10.3390/microorganisms12061212

Authors: Yosra Aoudi Shin-ichiro Agake Safiullah Habibi Gary Stacey Michiko Yasuda Naoko Ohkama-Ohtsu

Plant biostimulants have received attention as sustainable alternatives to chemical fertilizers. Extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs), among the compounds secreted by plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs), are assumed to alleviate abiotic stress. This study aims to investigate the effect of purified EPSs on rice under abiotic stress and analyze their mechanisms. A pot experiment was conducted to elucidate the effects of inoculating EPSs purified from PGPRs that increase biofilm production in the presence of sugar on rice growth in heat-stress conditions. Since all EPSs showed improvement in SPAD after the stress, Enterobacter ludwigii, which was not characterized as showing higher PGP bioactivities such as phytohormone production, nitrogen fixation, and phosphorus solubilization, was selected for further analysis. RNA extracted from the embryos of germinating seeds at 24 h post-treatment with EPSs or water was used for transcriptome analysis. The RNA-seq analysis revealed 215 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) identified in rice seeds, including 139 up-regulated and 76 down-regulated genes. A gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis showed that the enriched GO terms are mainly associated with the ROS scavenging processes, detoxification pathways, and response to oxidative stress. For example, the expression of the gene encoding OsAAO5, which is known to function in detoxifying oxidative stress, was two times increased by EPS treatment. Moreover, EPS application improved SPAD and dry weights of shoot and root by 90%, 14%, and 27%, respectively, under drought stress and increased SPAD by 59% under salt stress. It indicates that bacterial EPSs improved plant growth under abiotic stresses. Based on our results, we consider that EPSs purified from Enterobacter ludwigii can be used to develop biostimulants for rice.

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