WEVJ, Vol. 14, Pages 336: A Novel Dynamic Li-Ion Battery Model for the Aggregated Charging of EVs
World Electric Vehicle Journal doi: 10.3390/wevj14120336
Authors: Ahmed M. Asim Osama A. Ahmed Amr M. Ibrahim Walid Aly El-Khattam Hossam E. Talaat
Implementing successful aggregated charging strategies for electric vehicles to participate in the wholesale market requires an accurate battery model that can operate at scale while capturing critical battery dynamics. Existing models either lack precision or pose computational challenges for fleet-level coordination. To our knowledge, most of the literature widely adopts battery models that neglect critical battery polarization dynamics favoring scalability over accuracy, donated as constant power models (CPMs). Thus, this paper proposes a novel linear battery model (LBM) intended specifically for use in aggregated charging strategies. The LBM considers battery dynamics through a linear representation, addressing the limitations of existing models while maintaining scalability. The model dynamic behavior is evaluated for the four commonly used lithium-ion chemistries in EVs: lithium iron phosphate (LFP), nickel manganese cobalt (NMC), lithium manganese oxide (LMO), and nickel cobalt aluminum (NCA). The results showed that the LBM closely matches the high-fidelity Thevenin equivalent circuit model (Th-ECM) with substantially improved accuracy over the CPM, especially at higher charging rates. Finally, a case study was carried out for bidding in the wholesale energy market, which proves the ability of the model to scale.